„Theological and Epistemical Perspectives over Western and Eastern European Mentalities ” Symposium

 

Hubbelingʼs dilemma on Charles Hartshorneʼs reformulation of the ontological argument

Vlad Vasile Andreica
Romanian Academy, Iasi Branch

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: This paper is supported by the Sectoral Operational Programme Human Resources Development (SOP HRD), financed from the European Social Fund and by the Romanian Government under the contract number POSDRU/89/1.5/S/56815.

Hartshorne's ontological argument requires Lewis S5, but his own theory of modality seems to get one only as far as Lewis S4. Hartshorne insists that the ontological argument--or any theistic argument--establishes only the existence of God, which is the most abstract aspect of deity. Hubbeling identified a dilemma: either accept the ontological argument and deny the theory that modalities are temporal or accept the temporal theory of modalities and reject the ontological argument. Symbolically: "If Lp then LLp" and "If Mp then LMp" (where L = necessarily; M = possibly). S4 has "If Lp then LLp" as an axiom but "If Mp then LMp" is neither an axiom nor a theorem of S4. Modal status is unrestrictedly necessary only in S5. Without "If Mp then LMp" Hartshorne's argument isn't valid, for then it could be the case that God's existence is possible but not necessarily so. On the other hand, Hartshorne wants to ground the meaning of modal concepts in temporal process. The most plausible semantics for S5, however, leaves modal concepts untethered to time.

 

Religie, autoritate si reprezentare pe Internet 

Mirel-Eleodor BĂNICĂ
Institut Istoria Religiilor, Academia Româna, Bucuresti

Problema autorităţii contituie o temă centrală a sociologiei. O definţie “clasică” a acesteia presupune un control al acţiunilor individuale sau de grup, fără ca subiecţii vizaţi să utilizeze capacitatea lor de reacţie în contact cu aceasta (acceptarea autorităţii), tipul de autoritate utilizată depinzând în mod direct de puterea exercitată (R. Sennett, M.Weber). Pentru sociologia religiilor, autoritate depinde în mod direct de trei elemente: existenţa unor persoane calificate în practica rituală (auctoritas), conformism la o o doctrină comună şi adeziunea la învăţăturile Bisericii. Odată cu apariţia mediilor virtuale (Internet), acest tip special de autoritate a cunoscut noi forme de expresie şi reprezentare. Studiul nostru îşi propune pe de o parte să facă inventarul acestor noi forme de autoritate religioasă, iar pe de altă parte să prezinte şi să decripteze mecanismele de exercitare ale autorităţii şi ale puterii reale şi simbolice asociate în mediile virtuale. 

The Romanian Orthodox Church – between dogma and ideology

Sorin Bocancea
Romanian Academy, Iasi Branch

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: This paper is supported by the Sectoral Operational Programme Human Resources Development (SOP HRD), financed from the European Social Fund and by the Romanian Government under the contract number POSDRU/89/ 1.5/S/56815.

Besides its dogma, the Romanian Orthodox Church (BOR) also built itself an ideology. This ideology is not a new one, but is nationalism. Being one of the institutions which have accompanied the modern Romanian state since its establishment up to nowadays, and having an important role within the latter, especially after the fall of the communist regime BOR has presented itself in public discourse as the only institution which safe keeps “the Romanian spirituality”. The revival of nationalism after the failure of the communist regime created for BOR a situation in which it has been able to claim that it is the only keeper of the “Romanian soul”, of the “nation’s spirituality”. Although the laws stipulate that there is no state Church in Romania, BOR continues to present itself as such a unique Church, claiming, in its documents, that it is the “Church of the Romanian nation” or the “Ancestors’ Church”. This ideology has helped it make Romanians forget its collaboration with the communist power and thus keep a top place in their preferences.

The Nature of Phenomenon: The Perspective of Physics, Phenomenology and Neopatristics

Mihai-Dan Chițoiu
Romanian Academy, Iasi Branch

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: This paper is supported by the Sectoral Operational Programme Human Resources Development (SOP HRD), financed from the European Social Fund and by the Romanian Government under the contract number POSD RU/89/1.5/S/56815.

The concept of phenomenon plays a decisive role in building our understanding of reality, being used especially in science. But also the recent developments in philosophy led to an investigation centered on this concept (Jean-Luc Marion). No less, the neopatristic authors insisted on the significance of hypostasis (as phenomenality par excellence) for describing the possibility of knowing the Supreme Personal Reality. In my presentation I intend to analyze the differences and the similarities between these three understandings of phenomenality, as well as their significance for how we can relate today to what we call Reality.

Reductionism și Metodologie în istoria religiilor. Relația dintre fenomenologie și abordarea cognitivă a fenomenului religios

Ion Cordoneanu
Romanian Academy, Iasi Branch

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: This paper is supported by the Sectoral Operational Programme Human Resources Development (SOP HRD), financed from the European Social Fund and by the Romanian Government under the contract number POS DRU/89/1.5/S/56815.

În prezenta lucrare îmi propun să discut relația dintre fenomenologie și abordarea cognitivă a fenomenului religios, pornind de la premisa anti-reducționistă a lui Mircea Eliade confiorm căreia fenomenul religios trebuie abordat ca fenomen religios, și nu ca unul social, teologic, politic sau etnic. Voi valorifica interesul lui Eliade pentru metodologie în istoria religiilor, cunoscut fiind faptul că preocuparea sa pentru acest aspect datează încă de la sfărșitul anilor 50, când, împreună cu Joseph Kitagawa editează volumul The History of Religions: Essays in Methodology (1959); dar și criticle aduse în contextul dezvoltării științelor cognitive în general și al științei cognitive a religiei, cea mai importantă fiind aceea care vizează confuzia dintre explicație și interpretare în analiza fenomenelor religioase și care își are originea în faptul că, la Eliade cele două sunt în accord una cu cealaltă. Îmi propun, totodată, să orientez analiza către un posibil răspuns la o întrebare cu două ramificații: fenomenologia de abordarea cognitive sunt domenii separate de analiză a fenomenului religios? Dacă da, ce valoare epistemică mai prezintă poziția anti-reducționistă? Dacă nu, care sunt competențele celor două discipline și ce semnificație prezintă fiecare în contextual actual al cunoașterii în general și al istoriei religiei, în special. 

O eroare de traducere care dă naştere unui mit creştin: spiritalis unicornis

Bogdan Crețu
Romanian Academy, Iasi Branch

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: This paper is supported by the Sectoral Operational Programme Human Resources Development (SOP HRD), financed from the European Social Fund and by the Romanian Government under the contract number POSDRU/89/1.5/S/56815.

The medievals were not interested on the proper existence of a certain creature; all that mattered was its symbolic function. So, they did not questioned if the unicorn was a real or an imaginary animal, all they knew was that this animal appeared for 8 times in the Bible (due to an error of translationin the Septuagint) and that was enough. As the unicorn was the symbol of Christ’s sacrifice, no one doubted it must be real. Cantemir disobeys this kind of symbolic thinking: he knows the unicorn is only a myth (actually, in his epoch the myth loses its audience) and that is why he dares to choose only the aspects he agrees and needs form this representation. He practices a Modern or a rational lecture of the myth. This emblematic animal remains only a sign, no more a symbol of Christ’s sacrifice and uniqueness.

Moral Responsibility and Development of the Principles of Law Council of Trident (Trent)

Cornelia Margareta GĂȘPĂREL
Romanian Academy, Iasi Branch

The 17th Century is known for major changes in social, political, cultural and religious issues. Council of Trident remains very important in what the philosophical-religious history known as the Reformation and Counter-Reformation. The causes are multiple and have a determination role in building split between the inner (moral conscience) and the area of ​​social analysis (moral and legal responsibility). In this context of debates of the Reformation and Counter-Reformation, we are interested in the criteria by which moral responsibility (Trident decrees of the Council of the fifth session, on the origin of primordial sin and righteousness - justificatio) leading to the foundation principles of law by decree. The two concepts of moral and legal responsibility, unified in interpretation, became part of Canon and Common Law. Council of Trident focused on critical analysis of what it means penance and the confessional, may represent, in the moral crisis of modern society, ontological references to something that can be recovered or redesigned. The relationship between intent and act, considering the ethical, legal or theological, moral issues, show the importance of the social and legal construction. Hence we intend to achieve an enhancement of key moments in the history of ethics and point out how they were taken and applied to the development of two fundamental principles of law – liberty and property.

The relation of ethnosciences and theology

Petru Dunca
North University, Romania

Traditional mentalities are founded on the diversity of the ethnosciences. A corpus of pre-Christian beliefs lie at the foundation of traditional Christian theology. From ethnobotanics to ethnoiatry, with the charge of rites and rituals of magical nature founds the universe of theology. In traditional cultures this background is extremely rich, especially in the Romanian space. The study brings forth a series of examples, in the context of the essence of Romanian traditional culture.

 

The Influence of the Concept of Humanitas Romana in the Evolution of a Distinct Form of poena legis: exile

Iulian-Gabriel Hrușcă
Romanian Academy, Iasi Branch

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: This paper is supported by the Sectoral Operational Programme Human Resources Development (SOP HRD), f inanced from the European Social Fund and by the Romanian Government under the contract number POSDRU/89/1.5/S/56815.

Until the Second Century BC, the death penalty took often savage forms. Lex Porcia and Lex Sempronia de capite civium are laws from the Second Century BC that forbid the scourging of the citizens or their capital trials. These laws are the expressions of libertas, which is one of the components of humanitas, and in terms of human rights they represent a progress. Further steps in this respect are Sulla’s Lex Cornelia de sicariis or the laws of Caesar on maiestas and public violence. In this phase, the death sentence is replaced by the aquae et ignis interdictio, leading to the punishment known as exile. Cicero explains that the interdiction from water and fire against a condemned person was not a sentence of exile. Exile was only the expected response to the interdiction. Caesar emphasizes that the Romans took over from the Greeks the scourging of the citizens or the death for the condemned. But with maturity and wisdom came the Porcian and other laws that allowed the alternative of exile. The death penalty ceased to exist for almost the last fifty years of the Republic. Perhaps the greatest contribution of Rome to human rights was the alternative of voluntary exile which allowed a condemned person to escape from punishment. Humanitas Romana is the source of this great achievement. 

Eucharistic gnosiology

Nikolaos Loudovikos
University Ecclesiastical Academy,Tessaloniki

 

Philosophy and science: Galen of Pergamum

Adrian Muraru
Universitatea ''Al. I. Cuza'' din Iaşi

The paper tries to discuss the ancient relationship between the scientific practice and the philosophy of science, focusing on Galen of Pergamum, a physician and philosopher (2nd century AD).

Individual and social factors explaining religiosity differences between European countries

Sebastian Năstuță

Romanian Academy, Iasi Branch

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: This paper is supported by the Sectoral Operational Programme Human Resources Development (SOP HRD), financed from the European Social Fund and by the Romanian Government under the contract number POSDRU/89/1.5/S/56815

In contemporary age, Europe represents a religious melting-pot if we take into account the increasing number of immigrants that have a non-Christian religious background (Hindu, Muslims etc). The secularization trends within European societies and the interaction with these new cultures creates different patterns of religious behaviour in post-communist countries versus democratic regimes or in countries with a Protestant, Catholic or Orthodox dominant religious tradition. 

Based on data from European Value Study (1981 - 2010) and International Social Survey Programme (1991, 1998, 2008) we’ll observe how the religious behaviour of people from different European countries differ across generations, social classes, dominant religious background of the country, religious denomination and other factors. Also, we’ll try to understand if individual factors like education or income are stronger or not than the cultural factors (like dominant religion from a country, communist regime experience) in explaining people’s religiosity. 

 

Islamic Mysticism, the Prison of the Self, and Intrinsic Perception

Firozeeh Papan-Matin
University of Washington:

The present study provides an analysis of the state of consciousness that medieval sufis (Muslim mystics) described as annihilation or fana. This special realm of consciousness was an elevated stage in escaping the grasp of thoughts and the inviting delusions of self-identification. Mystics who experienced this state described it as a mode of perception beyond words and articulation. The urge to express this experience was the impetus for creating literary and artistic productions that these sufis attributed to accessing this altered state. This discussion will address its subject with special attention to the work of representatives medieval sufis of Persia and India.

Philosophy and Theology in the First Christian Century. Icon and Idol

Totu Savu
Romanian Academy, Iasi Branch

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: This paper is supported by the Sectoral Operational Programme Human Resources Development (SOP HRD), financed from the European Social Fund and by the Romanian Government under the contract number POSDRU/89/1.5/S/56815

It is said that Greek philosophy clearly influenced the theological thinking of the first Christian centuries. It even spokes about a Hellenization of Christianity. This article is about the relationship between philosophy and theology from what we call "knowledge". Relationship between theology and philosophy in the early Christian Centuries requires a good knowledge of the meanings of these two terms. The polysemy of the term "philosophy" in Byzantine culture requires an explanation of the meaning given to it in the phrase "ancient Greek philosophy." Then, one must distinguish between the ways in which the term "theology" is used by the Holy Fathers and, above all, to understand what distinguishes theology from philosophy. In extension to this short conceptual analysis, I will show why the Icon can not be understood in its truth meaning, namely, as "true image", except in and through theological thinking. Then, I will show why idol is a "fruit" of a theological thinking suffering from an inappropriate philosophical thinking.

Rediscovery of the Ancient Greek Science at the end of Middle Age. New interpretations of the history of science and political consequences

Dan Gabriel Sîmbotin
Romanian Academy, Iași Branch

A well-known idea was: the European Renaissance was founded on the translation of ancient Greek philosophy using Arabian translations and interpretations. The importance of the Arabic philosophy for rediscovery of ancient Greek science at the end of Middle Age looks like indubitable until few years ago (Sylvain Gouguenheim, Aristotle au Mont-Saint-Michel, Seuil, 2008). In this paper we will argue why appears such an interpretation now, how influence this new approach the political relation between Europe East and West and Middle East. Also, we will sustain with scientific arguments an equilibrium in interpretation in which the two known influence, byzantine and Arabic, were considered complementary and with impact on different domains of influence.

TFE
-->