Working Sessions | Anthropology and Cultural Studies

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Visul, o formă de cunoaştere. Dumitru Ţepeneag şi poetica romanului oniric

Şerban Axinte
Institutul de Filologie Română "A.Philippide"

 Această lucrare a fost realizată în cadrul proiectului „Valorificarea identităţilor culturale în procesele globale”, cofinanţat de Uniunea Europeană şi Guvernul României din Fondul Social European, prin Programul Operaţional Sectorial Dezvoltarea Resurselor Umane 2007-2013, contractul de finanţare nr. POSDRU/89/1.5/S/59758. 

Lucrarea Visul, o formă de cunoaştere. Dumitru Ţepeneag şi poetica romanului oniric reprezintă o sistematizare dublată de interpretare a elementelor ce compun estetica onirismului, conform căreia, visul ar fi un criteriu, un model legiuitor pentru o lume narativă, nu omologă, ci analogă celei obişnuite. Cunoaşterea realităţii ar depinde în mare măsură de capacitatea romanului de a transfera realităţii reale datele şi aspectele doar aparent iraţionale ale realităţii onirice. 

Hellenic Elements in Romanian provinces- Nicolae Mavrocordat

Adina Barbu-Chirimbu
Department of Philology USH/ Centre of Research, Resources and European Studies

Nicolae Mavrocordat the first phanariot prince had a positive influence over the Romanian provinces he governed not only politically (especially due to his fiscal policy) but also culturally. He supported financially and encouraged numerous cultural projects – writings, especially of a religious and historiographic nature, translations, printings, schools. The prince himself was a remarkable writer, author of a few works that – according to the specialists – influenced the literature of his time. Mavrocordat was also famous in his time due to his huge and precious book collection, desired even by the king of France and by the Pope. For almost two centuries and a half the Romanian territory was home of the biggest orthodox monastery in South Eastern Europe – the Vacaresti monastery, built by Nicolae Mavrocordat; unfortunately, the holy building fell victim to the communist regime. Not ultimately we should mention that Nicolae Mavrocordat – following the tradition already established by his Romanian predecessors – surrounded himself by famous scholars who had a deep influence over the cultural life of Muntenia and Moldavia.

Religie, autoritate si reprezentare pe Internet 

Mirel-Eleodor BĂNICĂ
Institut Istoria Religiilor, Academia Româna, Bucuresti

Problema autorităţii contituie o temă centrală a sociologiei. O definţie “clasică” a acesteia presupune un control al acţiunilor individuale sau de grup, fără ca subiecţii vizaţi să utilizeze capacitatea lor de reacţie în contact cu aceasta (acceptarea autorităţii), tipul de autoritate utilizată depinzând în mod direct de puterea exercitată (R. Sennett, M.Weber). Pentru sociologia religiilor, autoritate depinde în mod direct de trei elemente: existenţa unor persoane calificate în practica rituală (auctoritas), conformism la o o doctrină comună şi adeziunea la învăţăturile Bisericii. Odată cu apariţia mediilor virtuale (Internet), acest tip special de autoritate a cunoscut noi forme de expresie şi reprezentare. Studiul nostru îşi propune pe de o parte să facă inventarul acestor noi forme de autoritate religioasă, iar pe de altă parte să prezinte şi să decripteze mecanismele de exercitare ale autorităţii şi ale puterii reale şi simbolice asociate în mediile virtuale. 

The relationships between language and dialects in Italy, a situation in constant linguistic contacts

Louis Begioni
Universite Charles De Gaulle- Lille3 France

When we look at the language situation in Italy since the country Unity in 1861, one is struck by the extent of linguistic diversity and constant contact between at least four levels of linguistic interaction: 

- national Italian (literary Tuscan chosen as the national language in the Unification of Italy) 
-regional Italian 
- regional dialect, 
- local dialect. 

We propose to study the main characteristics of these interactions among the varieties of regional Italian 
1. analyzing the points of contact and the most important influences on phonological and morpho-syntactic levels for which we give typical examples: 
• changes in phonology 
• differences in the use of tenses; 
2. Then, we will report the new type of relationship between local dialects (which tend to be used less) and the urban dialects based on an increasing urban sociolinguistic model. This new sociolinguistic situation of contact allows us to explain what Tullio De Mauro defined as linguistic alternate use (code switching) where local and regional linguistic structures will mingle with the regional variety of Italian. 
3. At the end of our deliberations, we wish to compare the Italian situation with that of France, where a French standard has managed to win especially after the French Revolution and linguistic decrees of the Third Republic (decrees of Jules Ferry in 1882) ; nowadays dialects are in sharp decline even if we can describe some regional French languages. 

Immigration and Integration. The Role of Human Rights

Simion Belea
Romanian Academy, Iasi Branch

 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: This paper is supported by the Sectoral Operational Programme Human Resources Development (SOP HRD), financed from the European Social Fund and by the Romanian Government under the contract number POSDRU/89/1.5/S/56815. 

The migration phenomenon represents a structural reality of the contemporary society, this phenomenon being owed especially to the discrepancies regarding the level of the economic and social welfare of the population from different regions in the world. In time, migration has become a relevant part of global existence; thus, nowadays every country around the world is affected in one way or another by the migration process: both as a place of origin, transit or destination or as a country which deals with all these three situations simultaneously. In this context, more and more often, the social, political, economic, cultural and religious implications are being discussed, both at a national and international level, and also the necessity of creating a specific policy for the integration of the immigrants in the social and productive network of the host country. Indeed, the integration processes are in the centre of the scientific and political debates from many countries of the European Union, existing different ways of understanding, conceiving and putting in practice the integration. Taking into account the lack of a unique scientific definition of integration and a common political perspective regarding integration, the present paper tries to present some existent integration plans in European Union countries. This paper wants to underline the fact that the integration process has to respect the ethno-cultural diversities, provided that these do not break the fundamental human rights and do not represent a risk for the democratic institutions. The development and the consolidation of the human rights represent a key point for the aim of enhancing the efficiency of some policies of intervention and initiation of some integration programs based on the cooperation between the countries affected by migration.

Theoretical impermeability. On the constitution of knowledge in Romanian archaeology

George Bodi
Romanian Academy, Iasi Branch

 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: This paper is supported by the Sectoral Operational Programme Human Resources Development (SOP HRD), financed from the European Social Fund and by the Romanian Government under the contract number POSDRU/89/1.5/S/56815. 

As study of knowledge, epistemology attemps at identifying its’ necessary and sufficient conditions and defining its’ sources, structure and limits. From this point of view, until present, there are no applied approaches to the Romanian archaeology. Consequently, our present paper presents an attempt to explore the structural characteristics of the knowledge creation process through the analysis of the results of a series of interviews conducted on Romanian archaeologists. The interviews followed a qulitative approach built upon a semi-structured frame. Apparent data saturation was reached after four interviews within initial target group (senior reaserchers with institutional authority). Under these conditions a decision was made to continue the interviews within a secondary control group (young doctoral or post-doc researchers guided by members of the initial target group) in order to both verify the observed data saturation and to asses the impact of the attitude of senior researchers towards scientific research on the younger generation. The main topics which will be disscussed as a result of the investigation consist in the definition of the theorethical frame assumed by the reaserchers, the identification of the characteristics of research as perceived by the archaeologists and the manner of interaction of the researcher with its environment. 

 

The Modernization of Romania. Modernity as a Type of Society and its Values

Dumitru Borţun
National School of Political and Administrative Studies - NSPSA, Bucharest

Modernity is a type of society that could have emerged only in a certain stage of historical evolution and in a certain historical area. We must think in systemic terms, and understand that if the system as a whole did not have a certain attribute, then this attribute can’t be found in any of its constituents. For example, if what we call meritism did not work in the Romanian society, we also cannot have highways as in the Western countries. Meritism and highway are both values belonging to modernity. Those in the public space who talk about modernity do not understand this. Therefore, we do not have yet a coherent view on the modernization of Romania. The list of modernity’s values must include citizenship as a modern form of identity opposed to the exclusively ethnic and/or religious identity.  The present paper develops this issue of modern type of identity discourse and ends with some proposals regarding the cultural redefining of national identity, as well as with the indication of the necessary means of achieving this.   

Modele cognitive în toponimie

Daniela Ştefania Butnaru
Romanian Academy, Iasi Branch

 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: This paper is supported by the Sectoral Operational Programme Human Resources Development (SOP HRD), financed from the European Social Fund and by the Romanian Government under the contract number POSDRU/89/1.5/S/56815. 

Numele de locuri reprezintă simboluri ale organizării structurii lumii, ale felului în care omul îşi reprezintă realitatea înconjurătoare, şi îl ajută pe individ să se orienteze în teritoriu. Existenţa a două modele cognitive, cel empiric, popular, şi cel ştiinţific, geografic sau oficial, se reflectă şi la nivelul inventarului toponimic, prin împărţirea acestuia în două tipuri de realizări: toponimia spontană, populară, şi cea ştiinţifică sau administrativă. În consecinţă, se impune studierea lor complementară, cu evidenţierea atât a structurilor specifice, reflectate în trăsăturile fiecăruia, cât şi a interferenţei dintre cele două tipuri (aspecte ale cunoaşterii de tip popular fiind preluate în toponimia oficială şi invers). Corpusul pe care ne bazăm cercetarea îl constituie denumiri obţinute din anchete pe teren, din volume de documente, din hărţi, atlase sau lucrări despre nume de locuri.

The Nature of Phenomenon: The Perspective of Physics, Phenomenology and Neopatristics

Mihai-Dan Chițoiu
Romanian Academy, Iasi Branch

 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: This paper is supported by the Sectoral Operational Programme Human Resources Development (SOP HRD), financed from the European Social Fund and by the Romanian Government under the contract number POSDRU/89/1.5/S/56815. 

The concept of phenomenon plays a decisive role in building our understanding of reality, being used especially in science. But also the recent developments in philosophy led to an investigation centered on this concept (Jean-Luc Marion). No less, the neopatristic authors insisted on the significance of hypostasis (as phenomenality par excellence) for describing the possibility of knowing the Supreme Personal Reality. In my presentation I intend to analyze the differences and the similarities between these three understandings of phenomenality, as well as their significance for how we can relate today to what we call Reality.

Reductionism și Metodologie în istoria religiilor. Relația dintre fenomenologie și abordarea cognitivă a fenomenului religios

Ion Cordoneanu
Romanian Academy, Iasi Branch

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: This paper is supported by the Sectoral Operational Programme Human Resources Development (SOP HRD), financed from th e European Social Fund and by the Romanian Government under the contract number POSDRU/89/1.5/S/56815.

În prezenta lucrare îmi propun să discut relația dintre fenomenologie și abordarea cognitivă a fenomenului religios, pornind de la premisa anti-reducționistă a lui Mircea Eliade confiorm căreia fenomenul religios trebuie abordat ca fenomen religios, și nu ca unul social, teologic, politic sau etnic. Voi valorifica interesul lui Eliade pentru metodologie în istoria religiilor, cunoscut fiind faptul că preocuparea sa pentru acest aspect datează încă de la sfărșitul anilor 50, când, împreună cu Joseph Kitagawa editează volumul The History of Religions: Essays in Methodology (1959); dar și criticle aduse în contextul dezvoltării științelor cognitive în general și al științei cognitive a religiei, cea mai importantă fiind aceea care vizează confuzia dintre explicație și interpretare în analiza fenomenelor religioase și care își are originea în faptul că, la Eliade cele două sunt în accord una cu cealaltă. Îmi propun, totodată, să orientez analiza către un posibil răspuns la o întrebare cu două ramificații: fenomenologia de abordarea cognitive sunt domenii separate de analiză a fenomenului religios? Dacă da, ce valoare epistemică mai prezintă poziția anti-reducționistă? Dacă nu, care sunt competențele celor două discipline și ce semnificație prezintă fiecare în contextual actual al cunoașterii în general și al istoriei religiei, în special. 

Is the family still the meaning and the fulfillment of modern human?

Daniel Coriu
Facultatea de Teologie Ortodoxa, Iasi

Coauthor: Roxana Necula - Postdoctoral Researcher within the project “Postdoctoral studies in the domain of ethics in health policies”at University of Medicine and Pharmacy Grigore T. Popa Iasi.

 The human of the XXI century is characterized by most of anthropological and social studies as a individualist, a materialist and a religious one. His particularity is the ability to socially integrate very well, always to relate to society, contributing by his way of being to the definition of society itself. But quite often, this involves some principial changes with reference to the private and spiritual life of human, also with reference to the principles inherited through education and left for safekeeping by "outdated" traditional mentalities. Following this, somehow forced, major modernization of the human, the family is that which has lost the most as social and existential form. But, as will be seen from this study, the modernization of the family institution causes suffering to both, modern human's individuality and society, as a collective form of manifestation of the same human.

Unity and Diversity in the Anthropology of Ages and the Magic Force of the Spoken Word

Denciut Delia-Anamaria
Romanian Academy, Iasi Branch

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: This paper is supported by the Sectoral Operational Programme Human Resources Development (SOP HRD), financed from the European Social Fund and by the Romanian Government under the contract number POSDRU/89/1.5/S/56815.

The present paper is an attempt to highlight the complex interaction between unity and diversity, as well as the impact of the magic force of the spoken word belonging to the traditional Romanian community of Maramureş on the anthropology of ages, irrespective of the existential steps (childhood, puberty, youth, maturity, old age). The anthropology of ages and the magic which comes from the interaction with other domains (such as philosophy, linguistics, religion, etc.) show the interdisciplinary character of this approach. Man’s essential ages are interconnected with some specific notions, such as status, gender, useful operational concepts (language syncretism, situational context, functional transmutations, rhetorical and stylistic figures), also with some indispensable categories (children’s games, love’s games, charms). Children’s divination act, the charm itself show the relaxed border between unity and diversity, between the children’s repertoire and the adults’ repertoire. The proportion between the phenomenon (the act of incantation) and the poem/text (the charm) and the magic conotations can be seen on the complex level of the anthropology of ages. During childhood (children’s games) we find a true language game, implying entertainment, fun, pleasure, functional transmutations; during puberty and youth (love’s games) we come across the unmarried girl’s desire of reaching another status, of becoming a full, socially accomplished person, as well as the others, throughout the holly matrimony (e.g. through fate charms which, sometimes, can produece the „hybris”); during maturity and old age, we notice sobriety, austerity, magical-ritualic practices dominated by severe and strict interdictions regarding the place and moment of the incantation (e.g. the evil eye). The duality: to make/to unmake counts on magic of the spoken word, on the homoeopathic magic and it generates a permanent movement between malign and benign, between sickness and health, following a dialectics of the contraries which, at the same time, attract themselves. 

Factori extralingvistici care modifică sensurile cuvintelor

Ioan-Mircea Farcaș
Romanian Academy, Iasi Branch

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: This paper is supported by the Sectoral Operational Programme Human Resources Development (SOP HRD), financed from t he European Social Fund and by the Romanian Government under the contract number POSDRU/89/1.5/S/56815.

Au fil du temps, des causes extralinguistiques provoquent des changements de sens. Les mots peuvent changer de sens dès que la réalité change. Lorsque les mots passent d'un milieu social à l'autre on arrive de nouveau aux glissements de sens. On mentionne toujours parmi les causes extralinguistiques les interdictions de vocabulaire: certains mots sont remplacés par d'autres, moins "dangereux" désignant certains animaux périlleux, pour apprivoiser leurs esprits, croyant ainsi qu'on peut se protéger contre leurs attaques. 

O nouă abordare a violenței

Fedor Cătălin George
Romanian Academy, Iasi Branch

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: This paper is supported by the Sectoral Operational Programme Human Resources Development (SOP HRD), financed from the European Social Fund and by the Romanian Government under the contract number POSDRU/89/1.5/S/56815.

Lucrarea de față își propune să răspundă la două abordări total opuse, complementare, dar contradictorii în explicarea fenomenului de violență în societate: abordarea sociologică tradițională și cea antropologică. Perspectiva sociologică tradițională se referă la disfuncționalitatea mijloacelor de integrare a individului în comunitate, violența fiind o reacție a acestuia față de excluziune. Din perspectivă antropologică, se pune accentul pe dimensiunea culturală a violenței, deoarece ea face parte din cultura comunității și trebuie să i se restituie cadrul său specific. Propunem o nouă abordare, perspectiva construcționismului social, ca modalitate de definire și ca instrument analitic pentru studiul reprezentărilor problemei violenței și a efectelor acestor reprezentări în cadrul programelor sociale.

Șase formulări ale Principiului simplității

Six Types of Simplicity

Valeriu Gherghel
Romanian Academy, Iasi Branch

 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: This paper is supported by the Sectoral Operational Programme Human Resources Development (SOP HRD), financed from the European Social Fund and by the Romanian Government under the contract number POSDRU/89/1.5/S/56815. 

Termenul “simplitate” a fost folosit timp de secole fără o definiţie riguroasă. Sub acest nume s-ar ascunde, de fapt, mai multe înţelesuri: există simplitate în explicaţii şi există simplitate în interpretări. Dar există şi ontologii simple (reduse). Nu e acelaşi lucru. De fiecare dată, simplitatea prezintă o altă accepţiune. O putem defini oare într-un chip riguros? Are sens să o definim? Trebuie să o definim? Iată o definiţie (foarte simplă!) a simplităţii: calea cea mai concisă de la premise la concluzie. Deşi, în deosebire de gânditorii obsesivi (dau numai două exemple, Kant şi Hegel), nu cred câtuşi de puţin că structurile universului (ori structurile gândirii) s-ar supune unui număr precis (cifrei 3, cifrei 4 etc), în această comunicare m-am oprit la şase formulări ale principiului simplităţii. Hexada nu e o fatalitate şi s-a ivit în chip involuntar, prin hazardul punerii la un loc a câtorva propoziţii mai mult sau mai puţin memorabile. Unadept al simplităţii ar fi ales, poate, o unică formulare. Nu l-am ascultat. Simplitatea însăşi e de multe feluri, ceea ce confirmă domnia ubicuă a risipei. Dar ce înseamnă, până la urmă, a fi simplu? Propun, deocamdată, doar un rezumat descriptiv, o sinteză de aproximaţii. A fi simplu în interpretare înseamnă a nu fi excesiv şi risipitor (iată o definiție negativă, care nu ar fi acceptată de un logician foarte riguros), a respecta limita şi măsura, a rezolva o problemă doar cu datele ei și a nu construi ipoteze suplimentare...

The term "simplicity" has been used for centuries without a clear definition. The word has, in fact, more than one meaning: there is simplicity in explanations and there is simplicity in interpretations. There is also the term referred to as simple ontology. However, these terms are not interchangeable. Every single time, simplicity has a different connotation. Can it be clearly defined? Must we define it? Unlike the obsessive thinkers (such as Kant and Hegel), I absolutely don't believe that the structures of the universe (or the structures of mind) obey a precise number (such as number 3 or 4, etc), I am limiting myself in this thesis to only six definitions of the principle of simplicity. The hexad is not a necessary occurrence, it involuntarily came to be, by hazard of putting some sentences together that are more or less memorable. An adept of simplicity might have chosen a single theory. I didn't take that road. Simplicity itself takes various forms, confirming the ubiquitous reign of waste. What does it mean to be simple, after all? I am proposing for a descriptive summary, a synthesis of approximations. To be simple in interpretation means to avoid being excessive and wasteful (here is an example of a negative definition that would not be accepted by a logician who maintains high standards), to not transgress limits and exercises moderation, solving a problem within it's own entity without the use of auxiliary hypothesis. 

Volohii din Carpații Păduroși (Ucraina) - un popor românofon evoluat/involuat în afara miturilor istorice consacrate

Gherheș Ilie
Romanian Academy, Iasi Branch

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: This paper is supported by the Sectoral Operational Programme Human Resources Development ( SOP HRD), financed from the European Social Fund and by the Romanian Government under the contract number POSDRU/89/1.5/S/56815.

Paradigma coagulărilor naţional-statale în spaţiile Europei Centrale şi de Sud Est este una diferită faţă de ecuaţia apariţiei statelor occidental europene. Extrapolând această aserţiune vom constata că în Carpaţii Păduroşi sau chiar într-un areal mai extins, respectiv în bazinele Mijlociu şi Superior al Tisei, mecanismul frământărilor etnico-statale este unul care comportă analize foarte aplicate şi foarte în detaliu. În aceste teritorii, misterioasa zeiţă Clio a practicat un joc al destinelor, care a făcut ca din creuzetul devenirii istorice să apară un tablou etnico-statal şi/sau etno-cultural foarte mozaicat. Rămaşi „fără soartă”, „decăzuţi din destin”, volohii din Carpaţii Păduroşi - o etnie românofonă dar orfană şi abandonată istoric au rămas să rezoneze româneşte, să penduleze, între apelativele de „ţigani albi” și româno-volohi. Epopeea acestor ruine de românitate, funcţie a convulsiilor istorice, caracteristice unei zone energizate etnic până la „victorii finale”, ne descrie un tablou cu lumini şi umbre, prea puţin definite şi definitorii. Acolada descrisă de evoluţia acestui grup etnic românofon, compune un orizont care se întinde între trăsăturile unui monument-vestigiu de românitate şi, pe de altă parte, anumite caracteristici ale unui paradox identitar; o ilustrare a disputei dintre statuia firavă a unei identităţi abia prezumate şi momentul ostil al unei alterităţi bine precizate. 

"Consideraţii despre om şi condiţia lui. O abordare antropologică din perspectiva lui Ernest Bernea"      

Gabriel Hasmaţuchi
Universitatea "Lucian Blaga" din Sibiu
Facultatea de Stiinte Socio-Umane

După cum mărturiseşte filosoful, etnologul şi antropologul creştin Ernest Bernea în Crist şi condiţia umană, lucrare care stă la baza acestui studiu, problema omului necesită o atenţie aparte, mai cu seamă în momentele în care omenirea traversează o perioadă de criză. "Modul teandric", ca şi la Nichifor Crainic, dă, după cum afirmă Ernest Bernea, un înţeles spiritual existenţei umane, dar chiar şi morţii. Prin Iisus a venit salvarea omului, dar, în acelaşi timp, după cum afirmă Bernea, omul devine, în măsura în care doreşte, "colaborator" al lui Hristos şi "contribuie la opera divină". În contextul actual, o astfel de viziune poate contribui la reabilitarea omului şi a condiţiei lui.  

The landscape, the basic element of the spatial culture

Cătălin Iulian Hriban
Romanian Academy, Iasi Branch

 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: This paper is supported by the Sectoral Operational Programme Human Resources Development (SOP HRD), financed from the European Social Fund and by the Romanian Government under the contract number POSDRU/89/1.5/S/56815. 

The space organizing and rationalizing processes are based on the notion of landscape, which can be generally defined as the totality of the space observed at a certain moment, by a given individual or community. Therefore, the landscape is generated by the observer and, as such, it can be classified as a representation. The existence of the landscape is independent of both its comprehensiveness and its similarity with the physical space. Locationally, the landscape exists independently of its coincidence to the space it represents, as the process of observation creates its own set of references/coordinates. As a function on perception, the landscape can be regarded as a phenomenon and thus non-unique. This multiplicity is the result of both multiple observers and multiple modes of perception. Once observed, the landscape is integrated within the cultural paradigm through rational or irrational mental “operational chains”, becoming thus established through its appropriation by the community and its members. The appropriation process is fundamental to the infinite mental and material iterations of the “first” landscape, resulting in second-order landscapes that are reproduced physically as cultural landscapes or mentally as imaginary ones. Is worth noting that the reproductive process is independent of the means of perception, the result taking always a topographical/geographical form, whether the space is observed through the sensory organs, measured geometrically or perceived irrationally through revelation or during the shamanic trance. After all, the landscape of Paradise includes rivers, event though these are (gustatory) made of milk and honey and it posses climate, even though its perfection is defined according to a human sensory-bound index of thermal comfort.

The Influence of the Concept of Humanitas Romana in the Evolution of a Distinct Form of poena legis: exile

Iulian-Gabriel Hrușcă
Romanian Academy, Iasi Branch

 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: This paper is supported by the Sectoral Operational Programme Human Resources Development (SOP HRD), financed from the European Social Fund and by the Romanian Government under the contract number POSDRU/89/1.5/S/56815. 

Until the Second Century BC, the death penalty took often savage forms. Lex Porcia and Lex Sempronia de capite civium are laws from the Second Century BC that forbid the scourging of the citizens or their capital trials. These laws are the expressions of libertas, which is one of the components of humanitas, and in terms of human rights they represent a progress. Further steps in this respect are Sulla’s Lex Cornelia de sicariis or the laws of Caesar on maiestas and public violence. In this phase, the death sentence is replaced by the aquae et ignis interdictio, leading to the punishment known as exile. Cicero explains that the interdiction from water and fire against a condemned person was not a sentence of exile. Exile was only the expected response to the interdiction. Caesar emphasizes that the Romans took over from the Greeks the scourging of the citizens or the death for the condemned. But with maturity and wisdom came the Porcian and other laws that allowed the alternative of exile. The death penalty ceased to exist for almost the last fifty years of the Republic. Perhaps the greatest contribution of Rome to human rights was the alternative of voluntary exile which allowed a condemned person to escape from punishment. Humanitas Romana is the source of this great achievement. 

The narrative imaginary of the deserted wall: Eliade’s puzzle and the Romanian ‘dualist’ legends

Mona Mamulea
Romanian Academy, Iasi Branch

ACKNOWLEDG EMENT: This paper is supported by the Sectoral Operational Programme Human Resources Development (SOP HRD), financed from the European Social Fund and by the Romanian Government under the contract number POSDRU/89/1.5/S/56815.

In "Comments on the Legend of Master Manole", Eliade expressed his perplexity in what concerns Romanian voivode’s obstinate quest for a deserted unfinished wall as a ground for his new revered edifice. Indeed, there is a widespread traditional belief all over the world according to which the place chosen for a new building must be unaltered by the suspicion of a sinister past. My aim is to suggest a mythological clue that is likely to untangle Eliade’s dilemma by resorting to his very own explanative theory of ritual conduct. 

The Discourse of Difference in Knowledge Society

Teodor Negru
Al. I Cuza University of Iasi, Faculty of Philosophy and Social-Political Sciences

 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS:This paper was made within the project “Developing the Innovation Capacity and Improving the Impact of Research through Post-doctoral Programmes”, supported by the Sectorial Operational Programme Human Resources Development, under the number POSDRU/89/1.5/S/49944. 

According to the traditional approaches the concept of difference appeared as the consequence of a unitary discourse that started to be manifest at the time Nietzsche and Heidegger began contesting the old metaphysics. Therefore, to Gianni Vattimo or François Laruelle, the difference is an “invariant” or a syntax which characterises the discourse of some contemporary authors who wanted to offer an alternative to the metaphysics of dialectics to be found in the Western thinking ever since Plato. From this perspective, the understanding of the difference is conducted by starting from the genealogy of this concept that, after having been established, covertly by Nietzsche, and later on explicitly by Heidegger, was explained in more and more theoretically radical forms by Deleuze or Derrida, precisely to get rid of any metaphysical residue. What these two unitary approaches of the concept of difference not grasp is the plurality of articulate discourses on the concept of difference, which relates to different philosophical traditions. This assertion relies on the idea that difference is a concept that has been encountered ever since Plato and also met in the philosophy of the Middle Ages or in the Modern era. That means that it does not belong only to contemporary philosophy, and the discourse on difference does not inaugurate the beginnings of a certain trend belonging to the current philosophy. Rather, Nietzsche and Heidegger’s conceptions should be regarded as representing the end of a certain kind of thinking that dominated western philosophy ever since Plato whereas the theories generally called post-structuralists aimed at re-occupying (in a plurality of discourses) the positions left vacant after the end of the classical metaphysics. 

Recent Researches on Romanian Migration ‒ a Sociolinguistic Perspective

Florin-Teodor Olariu
Romanian Academy, Iasi Branch

 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: This paper is supported by the Sectoral Operational Programme Human Resources Development (SOP HRD), financed from the European Social Fund and by the Romanian Government under the contract number POSDRU/89/1.5/S/56815. 

The theme of migratory floods offers a wide research area rousing an intense scientific interest for many research directions. Among the numerous perspectives characteristic to the migration phenomenon one can mention the sociolinguistics of migration, a method that, based on interdisciplinarity, tries to sketch a radiography of all the aspects incorporated in the complex relation between language and migration. Besides the explicit linguistic aspect (that implies the analysis of the linguistic contact phenomena, code-switching, interlanguage etc.) an important emphasis is put on the linguistic imaginary implied in the daily communication process carried on by immigrants in aloglot environment. Their attitudes and representations referring both to their native language and the language of the host society become very important parameters in the encoding process and the checking of the linguistic vitality and loyalty of the members of that community in relation to their own language and culture, within a sociolinguistic analysis.

Islamic Mysticism, the Prison of the Self, and Intrinsic Perception

Firozeeh Papan-Matin
University of Washington:

The present study provides an analysis of the state of consciousness that medieval sufis (Muslim mystics) described as annihilation or fana. This special realm of consciousness was an elevated stage in escaping the grasp of thoughts and the inviting delusions of self-identification. Mystics who experienced this state described it as a mode of perception beyond words and articulation. The urge to express this experience was the impetus for creating literary and artistic productions that these sufis attributed to accessing this altered state. This discussion will address its subject with special attention to the work of representatives medieval sufis of Persia and India.

The Role of Appreciative Inquiry in Social Theology

Antonio SANDU
„Gr. T. Popa” University of Medicine and Pharmacy from Iasi
Lumen Research Center
Mihail Kogalniceanu University of Iasi

 Coauthors: Roxana NECULA - Postdoctoral Researcher within the project “Postdoctoral studies in the domain of ethics in health policies”at University of Medicine and Pharmacy Grigore T. Popa Iasi. Simona DAMIAN - Postdoctoral Researcher within the project “Postdoctoral studies in the domain of ethics in health policies”at University of Medicine and Pharmacy Grigore T. Popa Iasi. Ana CARAS - Research assistant at Lumen Research Center in Social and Humanistic Sciences, Iasi; PhD Candidate at the Faculty of Philosophy and Social-Politics Sciences, within "Al. Ioan Cuza" University from Iasi, Romania, E-mail: ana.caras.15@gmail.com. 

The relationship between theology and appreciative inquiry is explored in the literature from the perspective of theology of vocation patterns, specific to Protestantism and neo-Protestantism, trends from America. The relationship between success and salvation highlighted by Weber makes in fact the theologies of evangelical nature to be theologies of success at the same time. Success is seen as a sign of Divine Grace and is therefore desirable for a Protestant or evangelical Christian. Orthodox theology of salvation is essentially a theology of success as the highest success that human beings can gain access to, is to partake of the mystery of the Godhead. But success is not worldly, but one headed toward eternity. 

Christian message replaces the prohibition manifestation of the type “you shall not” and the image of a “jealous and prohibitive God” to reverberate in the Decalogue, with a God who loves people, which guarantees the obtaining of the “ultimate success” of the Christian, which is the eternal happiness made possible by the divine assuming of all human sins. Happiness is guaranteed under the condition of spiritual cleanliness. Happiness theology does not exclude anyone from its share of happiness if one does not exclude themselves. Orthodox theology is essentially positive, but positivity is based on “success salvation” which is more of a “emptying of passions”. 

Complexul mitic al labirintului

TEODOR (căs. CHIRIBĂU-ALBU) MIHAELA-ALINA
Universitatea Ştefan cel Mare, Suceava

Studiul identifică figurile mitice ale labirintului cretan(Minos, Tezeu, Ariadna, Minotaurul, Dedal), precum şi elementele asociate prin tradiţie cu acesta (securea dublă, grota, călătoria obstaculară, dansul ritualic etc), cu scopul de a pune în lumină faptul că mitul s-a convertit treptat în simbol. Înţelegerea labirintului ca simbol depinde de modul în care figurile mitice sau elementele asociate cu labirintul au fost percepute de-a lungul timpului. Orice mit este o „poveste fără sfârşit”, un adevăr etern care vorbeşte diferitelor culturi în momente diferite şi în feluri diferite. În civilizaţia cretană, labirintul şi mitul ţesut în jurul lui au avut semnificaţii numeroase: o ingenioasă şi complexă construcţie, operă de artă şi închisoare întunecoasă fără posibilitate de scăpare, o zonă de securitate în care novicele avea acces doar în urma traversării unor încercări, o metaforă a iniţierii etc. Odată cu înflorirea creştinismului, labirintul se converteşte într-un simbol complex, cu valenţe multiple şi contradictorii – călătorie spirituală spre cetatea sfântă „Le Chemin de Jérusalem“ sau arenă a păcatelor şi erorilor prin care sufletul rătăceşte –, pentru ca, în postmodernism, să devină un creuzet al schimbării. Prin urmare, studiul evidenţiază ideea conform căreia labirintul este o formă de coincidentia oppositorum, fiind deopotrivă rătăcire şi identificare.

 

The social functions of rites. A socio-anthropological interpretation

Adina-Iulia Şandru
"Petre Andrei" University from Iasi

At first sight, rites have a series of implicit functions, which are expressed precisely through their names: rites of inversion, positive rites, negative rites, rites of purification, birth rites, funerary rites, etc. Yet, not all rites have implicit functions, and this makes rite specialists attribute them particular functions, depending on the context. This is why I will attempt to discover their social functions. To this purpose, because my intention is to emphasise their evolution in time, I will use a diachronic manner of interpreting the functions of rites. In order to transform my study into one that pursues the diachronic analysis of rite functions, I will follow the line of thought put forth by Catherine Bell, in whose mind such an approach can be carried out only by referring to the anthropological trends which have taken this topic into consideration. As a result, I will begin my analysis of the social functions of rites starting from the functionalist approach, insofar as I am interested in ritual, understood as a social phenomenon, and in the manner in which it can influence the social groups that perform it. However, in order to identify the social functions of rites, my study will not be limited to the analysis of the functionalist line of thought. On the contrary, I will also attempt to find out what are the social functions of rites from the perspective of structuralism, an angle of analysis which, in anthropology, did not become a school of thought per se, but was rather identified with the works of C. Levi-Strauss and E. E. Evans-Pritchard.

 

Ideal, Creativity and Music in the Knowledge Society

Roxana Susanu
Independent Researcher

This paper focuses on the problem of ideals and music in the Knowledge Society, a society still under the influences of a capitalist mentality (“Knowledge is the new coin”, “Knowledge is power”), still having deficiencies in the domain of spirituality and ideals. Although the Knowledge Society includes culture and art as important domains, some theoreticians’ analyses show that knowledge tends to oppose culture (“Knowledge aversive culture”). The informational boom has led to very specialized types of knowledge in certain fields, which have discouraged non-specialists interested in these fields, at the same time removing specialists or workers in those fields from what the 19th century called “general culture”. Consequently, culture and its institutions have been transformed into a niche category. On another hand, organizational culture seems to transfer creativity towards production of both material and immaterial goods, meant to try and satisfy an insatiable hunger for new. Creativity, understood as an externalization factor, becomes part of an accumulation process and is transformed into compulsoriness (“compulsory creativity”). Kitsch, promoted in contemporary art and theorized at length throughout the previous century, replaces the traditional ideal of Beauty with something pleasant, sweet, agreeable, which flatters the senses. It could be associated with the Schopenhauer’s “hübsch”. Some analysts have named the informational society “cognitive capitalism”, in which Beauty, although apparently difficult to capitalize, is transformed into something familiar economically. But what role does music have in this cultural landscape? Its function as a social binder can be exploited in order to restore the creative act to its free status. This way, individuals and communities who experience, through music, joy and communion, can go back to spiritual ideals. The becoming, then, isn’t only cumulative, but also creative, and transferring one’s ideals from materialism to spirituality becomes necessary. 

Relatia artistului futurist rus cu traditia

Zaloaga Ana-Maria
Univ. Al. I. Cuza, Iasi

 This work was supported by the European Soc ial Fund in Romania, under the responsibility of the Managing Authority for the Sectorial Operational Programme for Human Resources Development 2007-2013 (grant POSDRU/88/1.5/S/47646) 

 Ruptura de înaintaşi, firească şi necesară oricărui început, este specială în cazul futurismului rus. Avangarda rusă înscrie un mod particular de a se rupe de predecesori prin chiar preluarea şi continuarea valorilor acestora pe care, în aparenţă, pare a le nega, cel puţin în plan teoretic. Tradiţia îşi găseşte ecouri în creaţiile poetice ale lui Velimir Hlebnikov, Aleksei Krucionîh ori V. Maiakovski, dar cu o semnificaţie aparte, generatoare a unei noi înţelegeri a timp-spaţiului şi a limbii. Comparaţia dintre Occident şi Orient relevă legătura strânsă a artistului rus cu materia, în detrimentul aceleiaşi relaţii stabilite în futurismul italian. De aici şi reproşurile pe care Marinetti le aduce futuriştilor ruşi prea „tradiţionalişti”, care nu sunt decât nişte „pseudo-futurişti”, ce trăiesc într-un „plusquamperfectum”. Dar acest „plusquamperfectum” marinettian reprezenta, pentru futuriştii ruşi, tocmai cronotopia adevăratei creaţii, respectiv, condiţionarea acelui „il futuro” (vizat de toţi futuriştii) de atingerea stării pure, a elementarităţii, de întoarcerea la origini. E un „futurum” altfel înţeles de artiştii avangardei ruse, căci timpul trecut în care trăiesc futuriştii ruşi le mijloceşte acestora tocmai calea către Adevăr, către început, către puritate şi absolut, fiind nu doar timpul creaţiei, dar şi timp-spaţiul acesteia şi al lumii. De aceea tradiţionalismul este o particularitate evidentă în mai toate manifestările futuriste ruse, dar el dobândeşte în spaţiul creator rus funcţii şi semnificaţii cu totul originale. Recursul la tradiţie se dovedeşte necesar unor gânditori care vizează obiectualizarea timpului, tipologia şi nu cronologia, aşa cum îşi propane acest articol să evidenţieze prin invocarea unor nume de rezonanţă din avangarda rusă, între care K. S. Malevici, V. V. Kandinski, I. F. Stravinski, S. P. Diaghilev. 

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